The proper preparation of a construction site is very important for the successful execution of any project. Site preparation is one of the initial steps for executing construction works which involves leveling, breaking up the land, grading, demolition etc. and the failure and success of the site preparation set the tone for other construction activities to be executed on-site. Therefore, the selected preparation set-up has to be completed accordingly before the construction process can begin. Whether the project is that of a residential development, a commercial office building, or a public infrastructure project also dictates the site preparation that will be required.
There are many steps in the site preparation process and will vary depending on the particular project and what the status of the site is.
Before planning a project, the soil must be tested and without knowing the nature of the soil it’s not possible to design anything. Soil geotechnical research gives insights about soil properties, types of soil, and the weight it can hold. Soil testing reports various details like type of foundation appropriate for the site, liquefaction possibilities, groundwater level, excavation-related hazards, soil strength and classification and much more, provided in the geotechnical reports.
- Check if the soil is suitable for construction.
- Identify liquefaction possibilities.
- Monitor slope stability in order to determine the possibility of landslides.
- Check the groundwater level to avoid hydrostatic pressure so water doesn’t seep in the building’s basement over time.
- Identify the type of soil on the construction site. Soil type is vital to how much the ground moves when it is dry and wet.
- Check soil bearing capacity in order to determine if the foundation is suitable for the specific site’s soil conditions.
- Determine excavation-related hazards, like exposure to overhead electrical cables or scattered debris and equipment.
SITE SURVEYING AND SECURING:
A surveyor is responsible for surveying the site to line out the exact areas where the road project or structures are to be built. Surveying is essentially the translation of the contractor’s plans into a representation of the project site.
- Secure the construction site in order to prevent theft, vandalism etc.
- Utilize appropriate lighting like motion-sensor lighting to remove hiding places for criminal activity.
- Set up fencing to prevent unauthorized access into the construction site.
- Display “No Trespassing” signs in order to warn potential intruders.
- Set up video surveillance and hire security guards to deter criminal activity.
- Lock heavy equipment and secure keys to prevent theft.
- Install tracking devices on machinery to monitor and recover stolen equipment.
- Purchase insurance, which acts as a safety net if any type of theft occurs.
SITE DESIGN PLAN:
This involves modifying the design to show the placement of fixtures and septic tanks. There should also be a record of the areas located underground. A construction changes every single day owing to the change in water tank’s placements or underground rock formations hence the use of a crew scheduler superior is a helpful tool during site plan design. The site plan also shows all newly developed access roads for the purpose of temporary storage areas and construction vehicles. Unlike any other steps during site preparation, revisions for it are carried out in the office while the site plan is always updated in the field.
CREATING SITE ACCESS POINTS:
After the design is in place, you can create site access points at the building site and around the job site. It is important that heavy equipment can access the necessary areas while prepping the site. For example, you may need used industrial equipment to remove old structures. You will also need perimeter access points so construction workers can move around the site and work.
DRAINAGE AND EROSION SYSTEM CONTROLS:
Before construction can begin, adequate drainage systems and erosion system controls for example retention ponds and dewatering of groundwater. Installation of a silt fence around the property in order to contain the soil so construction doesn’t disrupt the land and soil does not get washed into roads and sewers is also a good idea to keep non-stormwater and other harmful pollutants from discharging off-site or to even stabilize soil impacted by construction activities.